The Temple City Of Country
|State||: Orissa (Odisha)|
|Type of Tourism||: Pilgrimage|
|Area||: 419 square kilometers|
|Population||: 837,737 (As per Indian census- 2011)|
|Altitude||: 45 meters|
|Best Tourist Season||: October to March|
|Clothing recommended||: Light cotton in summer and light woolen in winter|
|Languages spoken||: Oriya, Bengali, Hindi, English|
|Telephone Code||: India (0674), International (+91)|
|Pin Code||: 751009|
|What to buy||: Appliqué Work (Chandua), Silver Filigree (Tarakashi), Wood Sculpture, Image Of Gods and Goddesses, Wood Animals, Masks, Toys, Boxes, Bell Metal & Dhokra Metal Work, Traditional Weaving Work (Ikkat), Tussar Silk, Sambalpuri Silk, Cotton, Silver Jewelry, Lampshades, Vanity Boxes, Vegetable Baskets, Patachitra, Paintings Made on Palm Leaf, Ganjapas, Seashells Purses, Mirrors, Kat Fabrics, Handcrafted Items|
|Popular Shopping Places||: Kalpana Chhak on Cuttack Road, Rajmahal Square, Station Square or Master Canteen, Utkalika, Saree Mandir, Ekamra Haat, Orissa Creative Art and Craft, Bishakha Handicrafts and Boyanika, Orissa State Handloom Weavers, Utkalika, Ekarma Haat, Saree Mandir, Orissa Creative Art & Craft, Bishakha Handicrafts, Boyanika|
|Food Specialties||: Rice Cooked With Potatoes, Aaloo-Bharta, Dahi Bara-Aloo Dum, Chatu Tarkari, Shorsen Maach, Chingdi, Maach Bhaaja, Rasgulla, Pahala Rasagolla, Chennajhilli, Chhena Poda, Rasabali, Cuttack-Chaat, Dahi-Pakhal, Khhaii, Chakuli Pitha, Ariselu, Enduri Pitha, Kakara Pitha, Pakhala, Chuda Dahi, Mudhi, Chhenna, Buta Dali, Mittha Dali, Dalma, Mandia Jau, Chhatua, Luchi, Mitha Bhata, Paratta, Chadachadi, Chhencheda, Chungdi Jhola, Dahi Baigana, Dahi Maachha, Ghugni, Ouu Khatta, Posta, Dahi Bhendi, Santula, Bel Pana, Nabata Pana, Arisha Pitha, Chhena Gaja, Chhena Kheeri, Chhena Jilapi, Kalakand, Kheersagar, Malpua, Mathapuli|
|Local transportation||: Train, taxi, auto rickshaw and city buses operated by BPTSL (Bhubaneshwar-Puri Transport Service Limited) and DTS (Dream Team Sahara)|
The ‘Temple City’ of the country and one of the angles of the religious Golden Triangle known as ‘Swarna Tribhuja’ (the other two being Puri and Konark), Bhubaneshwar is one of the most sought after destinations of Eastern India. Furnishing as the state capital of Orissa and the center of all religious, cultural and economic activities of the region, Bhubaneshwar happens to be the largest city of the Odisha Province. The term ‘Bhubaneshwar’ literary means, ‘the Lord of the Universe’. Boasting of its elongated history of more than 2000 years, Bhubaneshwar has been known by several appellations over the ages. They being; ‘Toshali’, ‘Kalinga Nagari’, ‘Nagar Kalinga’, ‘Ekamra Kanan’, ‘Ekamra Kshetra’ and ‘Mandira Malini Nagari’.
Celebrated for its rich architectural and cultural endowment depicted through the large spectrum of over 600 temples revealing the typical Kalinga style of architecture and jillions of lofty sculptures singing the sagas of the artistic ingenuity of bygone era, Bhubaneshwar is truly a most precious jewel in the casket of Orissa. Following the suit of the planned cities of the country including Chandigarh and Jamshedpur, the contemporary Bhubaneshwar city was designed by Otto Königsberger; a prolific German architect in the year 1946. One of the cardinal planned cities of India, Bhubaneshwar has also listed itself amongst the cleanest and the greenest civics of the nation. Categorized as the 2nd tier city, Bhubaneshwar, a booming IT and industrial hub is one of the fastest developing metropolitans of India.
A prominent pilgrim destination of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains, Bhubaneshwar is particularly acclaimed for its 10th century Lingaraja Temple, the twin cave groups of Kandagiri and Udayagiri, the inscriptions of Ashoka and an ancient Jain Monastery dated back to 2nd century BC. Bhubaneshwar is the very site of the great battle of Kalinga when the invincible Emperor Ashoka was overwhelmed by the sight of blood and leaving the path of warfare and massacre, he turned to Buddhism.
History Of Bhubaneshwar
The chronicled history of Bhubaneshwar can be divided into two categories – Erstwhile Bhubaneshwar and Modern Bhubaneshwar. The ancient history of Bhubaneshwar is dated back to more than 2000 years while the concurrent testimony of Bhubaneshwar is just as old as the Independence.
The earliest mention of the name of Bhubaneshwar can be found in the records of the ignominious war of Kalinga fought near Dhauli (now Southern Bhubaneshwar) in 3rd century BCE when Bhubaneshwar furnished as the antiquated capital of Kalinga Empire. The edicts of the mighty Mauryan emperor, Ashoka dating 272 BC to 236 BC and a number of Buddhist and Jain shrines constructed around the same period even complement the accounts of the human habitation at Bhubaneshwar during that era. Later, the greatest emperor of Kalinga; Monarch Kharavela of Chedi Dynasty restored the lost glory of Kalinga and established his capital at Sisupalgarh (presently the outskirts of Bhubaneshwar). The Hathigumpha Inscriptions created by Kharavela and found in Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves give a detailed account of his governance which is estimated to be dating back to 2nd or 1st century BCE.
The Anno Domini history of Bhubaneshwar is mainly characterized with the building of innumerable temples which renders the city its nickname of ‘the Temple City’. These temples, apart from portraying the architectonic dexterity of yesteryears also illustrate the political history of Bhubaneshwar. Kalinga Kings ruled Orissa and other surrounding regions till 11th century AD and almost all the temples of Bhubaneshwar were set up between 8th and 12th century AD. It is believed that the headquarters of Orissa were shifted from Bhubaneshwar to Cuttack in 12th century which remained so till the Independence of India. 15th century Bhubaneshwar was under the governance of Mughals.
The modern history of Bhubaneshwar marks its onset with the province being taken over by British East India Company in 1936 AD. During this time, Cuttack was the capital of the Bhubaneshwar Province. After Independence when Orissa was made one of the states of India, Bhubaneshwar was declared a part of it and the capital was shifted from Cuttack to Bhubaneshwar. An expert German architect named Otto Königsberger was assigned the responsibility of designing the plan of the modern Bhubaneshwar city who brilliantly fulfilled the job and Bhubaneshwar became one of the earliest planned cities of the country. The well laid down roads, gardens and properly segmented sectors of the city gave it a perfect demeanor of a modern metropolitan. On 13th April 1948 Bhubaneshwar was officially declared the capital of the Orissa state. Today, the rapidly developing city of Bhubaneshwar has hardly stuck to the plans of Königsberger and it has wildly expanded in every possible direction.
Today, the ancient history of Bhubaneshwar is preserved in the form of archaeological relics by The State Museum of Bhubaneshwar and the Tribal Research Institute Museum.